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As new technologies are being introduced in the market, PV manufacturers, investors and EPCs need to better understand the performance of the modules in different periods of time; end of manufacturing line, ownership transfer, installation and after years in the field. New PV technologies introduce new uncertainties in the field, especially when are installed in areas with high irradiance levels and temperatures. There is a need in the industry for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind PV module behavior by beyond the norm accelerated indoor PV testing.

How to accurately get Pmax at STC of high-efficiency PV?

Single Long Pulse

  • Commonly applied 10ms pulse duration is very short to measure the full Pmax of high capacitance modules such as HJT and PERC.
  • Depending on the PV technology, long pulse in needed measure the true Pmax of high capacitance modules (typical values are PERC >60ms, IBC >90ms, HJT >170ms)
  • Software corrections, such as voltage stepping methods add uncertainty, error sensitivity and they demand costly electronics.

Extended spectrum range

  • AM1.5 sun spectrum contains significant energy in ultraviolet (UV 300-400nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 1100-1200nm) ranges.
  • Efficiency gains of technologies such as PERC are typical in these UV and NIR ranges.
  • A solar simulator with 300-1200 nm spectrum and >99% Spectral Coverage (SPC) measures a significantly higher output of PERC modules than a 400-1100 nm solar simulator
Sun simulator light spectrum

300-400nm UV and 1100-1200nm NIR

2% to 5% of PV module Pmax is not measured if 300-400nm and 1100-1200 nm light is missing in the spectrum of a sun simulator.

In the real world "Standard Test Conditions" are rare

Temperature Coefficients

  • The industry needs to decrease measurement uncertainty and do more precise yield calculations to enable more bankable revenue forecast for EPC’s and asset owners.
  • Current testing methods introduce up to 10% measurement uncertainty This means that the uncertainty in temperature coefficients add 1% uncertainty in Annual yield estimation
  • Superior light quality and extremely uniform temperature control directly affects measurement uncertainty

Energy rating

  • Power determination under different conditions is a crucial indicator for PV energy yield simulation
  • Traditional setups introduce uncertainties measuring PV performance in various irradiances and module temperatures
  • With existing setups, energy rating testing are time-consuming and costly

Understanding PV performance over time



Study degradation mechanisms

  • The risk associated with LID/ LeTID and PERC is higher than it is for other PV technologies. LeTID is especially severe on p-type multi which can result up to 16% power loss. Partial or full regeneration is possible on both mono and multi PERC modules.
  • The industry needs to better understand the LID/LeTID effects in order to enable more profitable bankable solar plants, reduce financing risks and increase investor confidence. Those in the industry who have the ability to forecast performance and degradation with smaller safety margins will be the winners.

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Eternalsun Spire is a leading manufacturer of solar simulators for measuring the performance and reliability of PV modules.

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